“Maps are data”
Maps are locations where people store and retrieve information about how the world around them is structured. In what they show and what they don’t show, you can see the worldview of the people who created them.
“Spreadsheets are data visualizations.”
In what it shows and what it doesn’t, you can see the worldview of the people who created it. Every data set is like a map of what’s important; you can read it like a map for its history.
Grace Murray Hopper, 1960
$ SET SOURCEFORMAT"FREE" IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. PROGRAM-ID. Iteration-If. AUTHOR. Michael Coughlan. DATA DIVISION. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 01 Num1 PIC 9 VALUE ZEROS. 01 Num2 PIC 9 VALUE ZEROS. 01 Result PIC 99 VALUE ZEROS. 01 Operator PIC X VALUE SPACE. PROCEDURE DIVISION. Calculator. PERFORM 3 TIMES DISPLAY "Enter First Number : " WITH NO ADVANCING ACCEPT Num1 DISPLAY "Enter Second Number : " WITH NO ADVANCING ACCEPT Num2 DISPLAY "Enter operator (+ or *) : " WITH NO ADVANCING ACCEPT Operator IF Operator = "+" THEN ADD Num1, Num2 GIVING Result END-IF IF Operator = "*" THEN MULTIPLY Num1 BY Num2 GIVING Result END-IF DISPLAY "Result is = ", Result END-PERFORM. STOP RUN.
the spreadsheet has begun to be a forceful agent of decentralization, breaking down hierarchies in large companies and diminishing the power of data-processing.
Run Visicalc online in your browser:
Bricklin [Visicalc] enrolled in the Harvard University MBA program, with the aim of equipping himself with a wider skill set than programming—he did not want to suffer the same fate as many programmers he had encountered who had become unemployed in their fifties.
Karpor [Lotus] took several years to mature socially, drifting in and out of transcendental meditation, a period as a disc jockey, and taking a master’s course in psychological counseling. He enrolled for an MBA at MIT’s Sloan School of Management in 1978. In July 1978, he bought an Apple II computer and it was a turning point in his life.
“I know of one venture capital firm that assumes people manipulate spreadsheets,” Kapor said. "So they have this other model to put against the first one, to factor the stuff out.
Website -> Handouts -> Week 4
Look at this artifact
Above all, show the data
Show causality * remember John Snow’s map * but we have to remember causality is speculative - other maps of cholera don’t show this connection.
Attend to multivariate data * how to capture different dimensions in a visualization is a hard visual design problem
Minimize non-data ink use your visual language for data values.
take an integrated view - attend to context “be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set.”
graphical integrity avoid distortion