Champlain’s 1612 map of New France.
Jacques Barbeu-Dubourg carte chronologique. 1753
Joseph Priestly (1733-1804)
Priestley’s historical chart (1769)
J.H. Colton’s Stream of Time, 1842.
Not William Playfair
This Chart is different from the others in principle, as it does not comprehend any portion of time, and it is much inferior in utility to those that do; for though it gives the extent of the different branches of trade, it does not compare the same branch of commerce with itself at different periods. . .”
(Playfair, 1786, p. 101, from Tufte, 1983, p. 33).
Playfair tries to explain the bar chart:
Suppose the money received by a man in trade were all in guineas,and that every evening he made a single pile of all the guineas received during that day, each pile would represent a day, and its height would be proportional to the receipts of that day; so that by this plain operation,time, proportion, and amount, would all be physically combined. Lineal arithmetic, then, it may be averred,is nothing more than those piles of guineas represented on paper.
Caption: Playfair’s Pie and Circle Charts, 1801
The actual picture of Galton’s scatterplot.
Guerry’s choropleths, 1820s
Snow’s map of the 1854 cholera epidemic.
Minard’s chart of Napoleon’s march on Russia.
A modern interpretation of Minard’s map.
Mulhall’s pictogram (1884)
The most Tuftean Boston charts you’ll see
Why do you choose a language?
Reading R Code
Why R? It’s widely used in humanities and social sciences
visualizing tabular data.
Reading Racket code:
Functions evaluate from the inside out.
(* 3 (- 1 (/ 2 (+ 1 7 ) ) ) )
Reading (tidy) R code:
The pipe operator (
%>%) runs from left to right.
library(magrittr) sum(1,7) %>% divide_by(2) %>% subtract(1) %>% multiply_by(3)
Advice on re-using code.
What’s gone wrong?
What’s a dataset that should exist?
Try and find it.